Library stdpp.countable

From Coq.QArith Require Import QArith_base Qcanon.
From stdpp Require Export list numbers list_numbers fin.
From stdpp Require Import options.
Local Open Scope positive.

Note that Countable A gives rise to EqDecision A by checking equality of the results of encode. This instance of EqDecision A is very inefficient, so the native decider is typically preferred for actual computation. To avoid overlapping instances, we include EqDecision A explicitly as a parameter of Countable A.
Class Countable A `{EqDecision A} := {
  encode : A positive;
  decode : positive option A;
  decode_encode x : decode (encode x) = Some x
}.
Global Hint Mode Countable ! - : typeclass_instances.
Global Arguments encode : simpl never.
Global Arguments decode : simpl never.

Global Instance encode_inj `{Countable A} : Inj (=) (=) (encode (A:=A)).
Proof.
  intros x y Hxy; apply (inj Some).
  by rewrite <-(decode_encode x), Hxy, decode_encode.
Qed.

Definition encode_nat `{Countable A} (x : A) : nat :=
  pred (Pos.to_nat (encode x)).
Definition decode_nat `{Countable A} (i : nat) : option A :=
  decode (Pos.of_nat (S i)).
Global Instance encode_nat_inj `{Countable A} : Inj (=) (=) (encode_nat (A:=A)).
Proof. unfold encode_nat; intros x y Hxy; apply (inj encode); lia. Qed.
Lemma decode_encode_nat `{Countable A} (x : A) : decode_nat (encode_nat x) = Some x.
Proof.
  pose proof (Pos2Nat.is_pos (encode x)).
  unfold decode_nat, encode_nat. rewrite Nat.succ_pred by lia.
  by rewrite Pos2Nat.id, decode_encode.
Qed.

Definition encode_Z `{Countable A} (x : A) : Z :=
  Zpos (encode x).
Definition decode_Z `{Countable A} (i : Z) : option A :=
  match i with Zpos idecode i | _None end.
Global Instance encode_Z_inj `{Countable A} : Inj (=) (=) (encode_Z (A:=A)).
Proof. unfold encode_Z; intros x y Hxy; apply (inj encode); lia. Qed.
Lemma decode_encode_Z `{Countable A} (x : A) : decode_Z (encode_Z x) = Some x.
Proof. apply decode_encode. Qed.

Choice principles

Section choice.
  Context `{Countable A} (P : A Prop).

  Inductive choose_step: relation positive :=
    | choose_step_None {p} : decode (A:=A) p = None choose_step (Pos.succ p) p
    | choose_step_Some {p} {x : A} :
       decode p = Some x ¬P x choose_step (Pos.succ p) p.
  Lemma choose_step_acc : ( x, P x) Acc choose_step 1%positive.
  Proof.
    intros [x Hx]. cut ( i p,
      i encode x 1 + encode x = p + i Acc choose_step p).
    { intros help. by apply (help (encode x)). }
    intros i. induction i as [|i IH] using Pos.peano_ind; intros p ??.
    { constructor. intros j. assert (p = encode x) by lia; subst.
      inversion 1 as [? Hd|?? Hd]; subst;
        rewrite decode_encode in Hd; congruence. }
    constructor. intros j.
    inversion 1 as [? Hd|? y Hd]; subst; auto with lia.
  Qed.

  Context `{ x, Decision (P x)}.

  Fixpoint choose_go {i} (acc : Acc choose_step i) : A :=
    match Some_dec (decode i) with
    | inleft (xHx) ⇒
      match decide (P x) with
      | left _x | right Hchoose_go (Acc_inv acc (choose_step_Some Hx H))
      end
    | inright Hchoose_go (Acc_inv acc (choose_step_None H))
    end.
  Fixpoint choose_go_correct {i} (acc : Acc choose_step i) : P (choose_go acc).
  Proof. destruct acc; simpl. repeat case_match; auto. Qed.
  Fixpoint choose_go_pi {i} (acc1 acc2 : Acc choose_step i) :
    choose_go acc1 = choose_go acc2.
  Proof. destruct acc1, acc2; simpl; repeat case_match; auto. Qed.

  Definition choose (H: x, P x) : A := choose_go (choose_step_acc H).
  Definition choose_correct (H: x, P x) : P (choose H) := choose_go_correct _.
  Definition choose_pi (H1 H2 : x, P x) :
    choose H1 = choose H2 := choose_go_pi _ _.
  Definition choice (HA : x, P x) : { x | P x } := _choose_correct HA.
End choice.

Lemma surj_cancel `{Countable A} `{EqDecision B}
  (f : A B) `{!Surj (=) f} : { g : B A & Cancel (=) f g }.
Proof.
   (λ y, choose (λ x, f x = y) (surj f y)).
  intros y. by rewrite (choose_correct (λ x, f x = y) (surj f y)).
Qed.

Instances

Injection

Section inj_countable.
  Context `{Countable A, EqDecision B}.
  Context (f : B A) (g : A option B) (fg : x, g (f x) = Some x).

  Program Definition inj_countable : Countable B :=
    {| encode y := encode (f y); decode p := x decode p; g x |}.
  Next Obligation. intros y; simpl; rewrite decode_encode; eauto. Qed.
End inj_countable.

Section inj_countable'.
  Context `{Countable A, EqDecision B}.
  Context (f : B A) (g : A B) (fg : x, g (f x) = x).

  Program Definition inj_countable' : Countable B := inj_countable f (Some g) _.
  Next Obligation. intros x. by f_equal/=. Qed.
End inj_countable'.

Empty

Global Program Instance Empty_set_countable : Countable Empty_set :=
  {| encode u := 1; decode p := None |}.
Next Obligation. by intros []. Qed.

Unit

Global Program Instance unit_countable : Countable unit :=
  {| encode u := 1; decode p := Some () |}.
Next Obligation. by intros []. Qed.

Bool

Global Program Instance bool_countable : Countable bool := {|
  encode b := if b then 1 else 2;
  decode p := Some match p return bool with 1 ⇒ true | _false end
|}.
Next Obligation. by intros []. Qed.

Option

Global Program Instance option_countable `{Countable A} : Countable (option A) := {|
  encode o := match o with None ⇒ 1 | Some xPos.succ (encode x) end;
  decode p := if decide (p = 1) then Some None else Some <$> decode (Pos.pred p)
|}.
Next Obligation.
  intros ??? [x|]; simpl; repeat case_decide; auto with lia.
  by rewrite Pos.pred_succ, decode_encode.
Qed.

Sums

Global Program Instance sum_countable `{Countable A} `{Countable B} :
  Countable (A + B)%type := {|
    encode xy :=
      match xy with inl x(encode x)~0 | inr y(encode y)~1 end;
    decode p :=
      match p with
      | 1 ⇒ None | p~0inl <$> decode p | p~1inr <$> decode p
      end
  |}.
Next Obligation. by intros ?????? [x|y]; simpl; rewrite decode_encode. Qed.

Products

Fixpoint prod_encode_fst (p : positive) : positive :=
  match p with
  | 1 ⇒ 1
  | p~0(prod_encode_fst p)~0~0
  | p~1(prod_encode_fst p)~0~1
  end.
Fixpoint prod_encode_snd (p : positive) : positive :=
  match p with
  | 1 ⇒ 1~0
  | p~0(prod_encode_snd p)~0~0
  | p~1(prod_encode_snd p)~1~0
  end.
Fixpoint prod_encode (p q : positive) : positive :=
  match p, q with
  | 1, 1 ⇒ 1~1
  | p~0, 1 ⇒ (prod_encode_fst p)~1~0
  | p~1, 1 ⇒ (prod_encode_fst p)~1~1
  | 1, q~0(prod_encode_snd q)~0~1
  | 1, q~1(prod_encode_snd q)~1~1
  | p~0, q~0(prod_encode p q)~0~0
  | p~0, q~1(prod_encode p q)~1~0
  | p~1, q~0(prod_encode p q)~0~1
  | p~1, q~1(prod_encode p q)~1~1
  end.
Fixpoint prod_decode_fst (p : positive) : option positive :=
  match p with
  | p~0~0(~0) <$> prod_decode_fst p
  | p~0~1Some match prod_decode_fst p with Some qq~1 | _ ⇒ 1 end
  | p~1~0(~0) <$> prod_decode_fst p
  | p~1~1Some match prod_decode_fst p with Some qq~1 | _ ⇒ 1 end
  | 1~0None
  | 1~1Some 1
  | 1 ⇒ Some 1
  end.
Fixpoint prod_decode_snd (p : positive) : option positive :=
  match p with
  | p~0~0(~0) <$> prod_decode_snd p
  | p~0~1(~0) <$> prod_decode_snd p
  | p~1~0Some match prod_decode_snd p with Some qq~1 | _ ⇒ 1 end
  | p~1~1Some match prod_decode_snd p with Some qq~1 | _ ⇒ 1 end
  | 1~0Some 1
  | 1~1Some 1
  | 1 ⇒ None
  end.

Lemma prod_decode_encode_fst p q : prod_decode_fst (prod_encode p q) = Some p.
Proof.
  assert ( p, prod_decode_fst (prod_encode_fst p) = Some p).
  { intros p'. by induction p'; simplify_option_eq. }
  assert ( p, prod_decode_fst (prod_encode_snd p) = None).
  { intros p'. by induction p'; simplify_option_eq. }
  revert q. by induction p; intros [?|?|]; simplify_option_eq.
Qed.
Lemma prod_decode_encode_snd p q : prod_decode_snd (prod_encode p q) = Some q.
Proof.
  assert ( p, prod_decode_snd (prod_encode_snd p) = Some p).
  { intros p'. by induction p'; simplify_option_eq. }
  assert ( p, prod_decode_snd (prod_encode_fst p) = None).
  { intros p'. by induction p'; simplify_option_eq. }
  revert q. by induction p; intros [?|?|]; simplify_option_eq.
Qed.
Global Program Instance prod_countable `{Countable A} `{Countable B} :
  Countable (A × B)%type := {|
    encode xy := prod_encode (encode (xy.1)) (encode (xy.2));
    decode p :=
     x prod_decode_fst p ≫= decode;
     y prod_decode_snd p ≫= decode; Some (x, y)
  |}.
Next Obligation.
  intros ?????? [x y]; simpl.
  rewrite prod_decode_encode_fst, prod_decode_encode_snd; simpl.
  by rewrite !decode_encode.
Qed.

Lists

Global Program Instance list_countable `{Countable A} : Countable (list A) :=
  {| encode xs := positives_flatten (encode <$> xs);
     decode p := positives positives_unflatten p;
                 mapM decode positives; |}.
Next Obligation.
  intros A EqA CA xs.
  simpl.
  rewrite positives_unflatten_flatten.
  simpl.
  apply (mapM_fmap_Some _ _ _ decode_encode).
Qed.

Numbers

Global Instance pos_countable : Countable positive :=
  {| encode := id; decode := Some; decode_encode x := eq_refl |}.
Global Program Instance N_countable : Countable N := {|
  encode x := match x with N0 ⇒ 1 | Npos pPos.succ p end;
  decode p := if decide (p = 1) then Some 0%N else Some (Npos (Pos.pred p))
|}.
Next Obligation.
  intros [|p]; simpl; [done|].
  by rewrite decide_False, Pos.pred_succ by (by destruct p).
Qed.
Global Program Instance Z_countable : Countable Z := {|
  encode x := match x with Z0 ⇒ 1 | Zpos pp~0 | Zneg pp~1 end;
  decode p := Some match p with 1 ⇒ Z0 | p~0Zpos p | p~1Zneg p end
|}.
Next Obligation. by intros [|p|p]. Qed.
Global Program Instance nat_countable : Countable nat :=
  {| encode x := encode (N.of_nat x); decode p := N.to_nat <$> decode p |}.
Next Obligation.
  by intros x; lazy beta; rewrite decode_encode; csimpl; rewrite Nat2N.id.
Qed.

Global Program Instance Qc_countable : Countable Qc :=
  inj_countable
    (λ p : Qc, let 'Qcmake (x # y) _ := p return _ in (x,y))
    (λ q : Z × positive, let '(x,y) := q return _ in Some (Q2Qc (x # y))) _.
Next Obligation.
  intros [[x y] Hcan]. f_equal. apply Qc_is_canon. simpl. by rewrite Hcan.
Qed.

Global Program Instance Qp_countable : Countable Qp :=
  inj_countable
    Qp_to_Qc
    (λ p : Qc, guard (0 < p)%Qc as Hp; Some (mk_Qp p Hp)) _.
Next Obligation.
  intros [p Hp]. unfold mguard, option_guard; simpl.
  case_match; [|done]. f_equal. by apply Qp_to_Qc_inj_iff.
Qed.

Global Program Instance fin_countable n : Countable (fin n) :=
  inj_countable
    fin_to_nat
    (λ m : nat, guard (m < n)%nat as Hm; Some (nat_to_fin Hm)) _.
Next Obligation.
  intros n i; simplify_option_eq.
  - by rewrite nat_to_fin_to_nat.
  - by pose proof (fin_to_nat_lt i).
Qed.

Generic trees

Local Close Scope positive.

Inductive gen_tree (T : Type) : Type :=
  | GenLeaf : T gen_tree T
  | GenNode : nat list (gen_tree T) gen_tree T.
Global Arguments GenLeaf {_} _ : assert.
Global Arguments GenNode {_} _ _ : assert.

Global Instance gen_tree_dec `{EqDecision T} : EqDecision (gen_tree T).
Proof.
 refine (
  fix go t1 t2 := let _ : EqDecision _ := @go in
  match t1, t2 with
  | GenLeaf x1, GenLeaf x2cast_if (decide (x1 = x2))
  | GenNode n1 ts1, GenNode n2 ts2
     cast_if_and (decide (n1 = n2)) (decide (ts1 = ts2))
  | _, _right _
  end); abstract congruence.
Defined.

Fixpoint gen_tree_to_list {T} (t : gen_tree T) : list (nat × nat + T) :=
  match t with
  | GenLeaf x[inr x]
  | GenNode n ts(ts ≫= gen_tree_to_list) ++ [inl (length ts, n)]
  end.

Fixpoint gen_tree_of_list {T}
    (k : list (gen_tree T)) (l : list (nat × nat + T)) : option (gen_tree T) :=
  match l with
  | []head k
  | inr x :: lgen_tree_of_list (GenLeaf x :: k) l
  | inl (len,n) :: l
     gen_tree_of_list (GenNode n (reverse (take len k)) :: drop len k) l
  end.

Lemma gen_tree_of_to_list {T} k l (t : gen_tree T) :
  gen_tree_of_list k (gen_tree_to_list t ++ l) = gen_tree_of_list (t :: k) l.
Proof.
  revert t k l; fix FIX 1; intros [|n ts] k l; simpl; auto.
  trans (gen_tree_of_list (reverse ts ++ k) ([inl (length ts, n)] ++ l)).
  - rewrite <-(assoc_L _). revert k. generalize ([inl (length ts, n)] ++ l).
    induction ts as [|t ts'' IH]; intros k ts'''; csimpl; auto.
    rewrite reverse_cons, <-!(assoc_L _), FIX; simpl; auto.
  - simpl. by rewrite take_app_alt, drop_app_alt, reverse_involutive
      by (by rewrite reverse_length).
Qed.

Global Program Instance gen_tree_countable `{Countable T} : Countable (gen_tree T) :=
  inj_countable gen_tree_to_list (gen_tree_of_list []) _.
Next Obligation.
  intros T ?? t.
  by rewrite <-(right_id_L [] _ (gen_tree_to_list _)), gen_tree_of_to_list.
Qed.

Sigma

Global Program Instance countable_sig `{Countable A} (P : A Prop)
        `{!∀ x, Decision (P x), !∀ x, ProofIrrel (P x)} :
  Countable { x : A | P x } :=
  inj_countable proj1_sig (λ x, guard (P x) as Hx; Some (x Hx)) _.
Next Obligation.
  intros A ?? P ?? [x Hx]. by erewrite (option_guard_True_pi (P x)).
Qed.