Library stdpp.fin

This file collects general purpose definitions and theorems on the fin type (bounded naturals). It uses the definitions from the standard library, but renames or changes their notations, so that it becomes more consistent with the naming conventions in this development.
From stdpp Require Export base tactics.
From stdpp Require Import options.

The fin type

The type fin n represents natural numbers i with 0 i < n. We define a scope fin, in which we declare notations for small literals of the fin type. Whereas the standard library starts counting at 1, we start counting at 0. This way, the embedding fin_to_nat preserves 0, and allows us to define fin_to_nat as a coercion without introducing notational ambiguity.
Notation fin := Fin.t.
Notation FS := Fin.FS.

Declare Scope fin_scope.
Delimit Scope fin_scope with fin.
Global Arguments Fin.FS _ _%fin : assert.

Notation "0" := Fin.F1 : fin_scope. Notation "1" := (FS 0) : fin_scope.
Notation "2" := (FS 1) : fin_scope. Notation "3" := (FS 2) : fin_scope.
Notation "4" := (FS 3) : fin_scope. Notation "5" := (FS 4) : fin_scope.
Notation "6" := (FS 5) : fin_scope. Notation "7" := (FS 6) : fin_scope.
Notation "8" := (FS 7) : fin_scope. Notation "9" := (FS 8) : fin_scope.
Notation "10" := (FS 9) : fin_scope.

Fixpoint fin_to_nat {n} (i : fin n) : nat :=
  match i with 0%fin ⇒ 0 | FS iS (fin_to_nat i) end.
Coercion fin_to_nat : fin >-> nat.

Notation nat_to_fin := Fin.of_nat_lt.
Notation fin_rect2 := Fin.rect2.

Global Instance fin_dec {n} : EqDecision (fin n).
 refine (fin_rect2
  (λ n (i j : fin n), { i = j } + { i j })
  (λ _, left _)
  (λ _ _, right _)
  (λ _ _, right _)
  (λ _ _ _ H, cast_if H));
  abstract (f_equal; by auto using Fin.FS_inj).

The inversion principle fin_S_inv is more convenient than its variant Fin.caseS in the standard library, as we keep the parameter n fixed. In the tactic inv_fin i to perform dependent case analysis on i, we therefore do not have to generalize over the index n and all assumptions depending on it. Notice that contrary to dependent destruction, which uses the JMeq_eq axiom, the tactic inv_fin produces axiom free proofs.
Notation fin_0_inv := Fin.case0.

Definition fin_S_inv {n} (P : fin (S n) Type)
  (H0 : P 0%fin) (HS : i, P (FS i)) (i : fin (S n)) : P i.
  revert P H0 HS.
  refine match i with 0%finλ _ H0 _, H0 | FS iλ _ _ HS, HS i end.

Ltac inv_fin i :=
  let T := type of i in
  match eval hnf in T with
  | fin ?n
    match eval hnf in n with
    | 0 ⇒
      revert dependent i; match goal with |- i, @?P iapply (fin_0_inv P) end
    | S ?n
      revert dependent i; match goal with |- i, @?P iapply (fin_S_inv P) end

Global Instance FS_inj {n} : Inj (=) (=) (@FS n).
Proof. intros i j. apply Fin.FS_inj. Qed.
Global Instance fin_to_nat_inj {n} : Inj (=) (=) (@fin_to_nat n).
  intros i. induction i; intros j; inv_fin j; intros; f_equal/=; auto with lia.

Lemma fin_to_nat_lt {n} (i : fin n) : fin_to_nat i < n.
Proof. induction i; simpl; lia. Qed.
Lemma fin_to_nat_to_fin n m (H : n < m) : fin_to_nat (nat_to_fin H) = n.
  revert m H. induction n; intros [|?]; simpl; auto; intros; exfalso; lia.
Lemma nat_to_fin_to_nat {n} (i : fin n) H : @nat_to_fin (fin_to_nat i) n H = i.
Proof. apply (inj fin_to_nat), fin_to_nat_to_fin. Qed.

Fixpoint fin_plus_inv {n1 n2} : (P : fin (n1 + n2) Type)
    (H1 : i1 : fin n1, P (Fin.L n2 i1))
    (H2 : i2, P (Fin.R n1 i2)) (i : fin (n1 + n2)), P i :=
  match n1 with
  | 0 ⇒ λ P H1 H2 i, H2 i
  | S nλ P H1 H2, fin_S_inv P (H1 0%fin) (fin_plus_inv _ (λ i, H1 (FS i)) H2)

Lemma fin_plus_inv_L {n1 n2} (P : fin (n1 + n2) Type)
    (H1: i1 : fin n1, P (Fin.L _ i1)) (H2: i2, P (Fin.R _ i2)) (i: fin n1) :
  fin_plus_inv P H1 H2 (Fin.L n2 i) = H1 i.
  revert P H1 H2 i.
  induction n1 as [|n1 IH]; intros P H1 H2 i; inv_fin i; simpl; auto.
  intros i. apply (IH (λ i, P (FS i))).

Lemma fin_plus_inv_R {n1 n2} (P : fin (n1 + n2) Type)
    (H1: i1 : fin n1, P (Fin.L _ i1)) (H2: i2, P (Fin.R _ i2)) (i: fin n2) :
  fin_plus_inv P H1 H2 (Fin.R n1 i) = H2 i.
  revert P H1 H2 i; induction n1 as [|n1 IH]; intros P H1 H2 i; simpl; auto.
  apply (IH (λ i, P (FS i))).